Health, Medicine, and Biotechnology
Health, Medicine, and Biotechnology
The development and manufacture of a technique or product to provide for the maintenance of a healthy level of physical, mental, and psychological fitness, the use of organic substances that are only existing in or derived from plants, animals or other living tissue, organisms or microorganisms to biologically engineer a compound or substance to improve lives, and the use of inorganic substances to perform chemical processing or to produce other materials that improve lives, industrial processes, and the environment.
Robonaut 2: Medical Opportunities
Robonaut 2: Medical Opportunities
R2's unique systems allow the robot to be used in many telemedicine applications and in many medical scenarios. For example, R2 can assist a surgeon and the surgical team before, during, and after a procedure with multiple tasks. The robot has the vision, dexterity, and the ability to perform tasks tirelessly 24 hours a day, seven days a week. R2 can work safely around humans, so it can be integrated into a dynamic hospital environment. The R2 technology capabilities in telemedicine are being explored through partnerships with medical institutions. After a quick medical procedure training, a R2 teleoperator was able to guide the robot and perform an ultrasound scan on a medical mannequin. Humans at the controls were able to guide the robot to perform the task correctly and efficiently by using R2's dexterity to apply the appropriate level of force and were able to track their progress using the robot's vision system. The technology was also used to experiment using a syringe and an intubation procedure with a mannequin to demonstrate R2's telemedicine capabilities. R2 is well suited to be used by physicians to conduct medical procedures on humans in remote locations.
Self-Contained Device Isolates Biological Samples
Self-Contained Device Isolates Biological Samples
JSC's technology provides hazard-free, microgravity-compatible hardware for DNA/RNA isolation. It also allows PCR analysis to be used outside the lab in environments where pipetting is difficult and/or where hazardous chemicals must be confined to an enclosed container, such as military settings and remote clinical operations. This self-contained device for isolating DNA/RNA, proteins, and cells is a component system that includes syringes and pistons, membranes of different capacities, reagents, four-way valves, and small pumps. The pre-filled reagents are the same as those used in conventional PCR laboratory isolation analysis. The DNA and RNA isolation kits are novel and process small sample amounts using a self-enclosed and pipette-free technique. Multiple kits can be stacked to allow several samples to be processed simultaneously. The system can be used in conjunction with existing analysis modules, such as commercially available DNA instruments. The process can be fully automated and programmed and can potentially be applied to other biological processes. The JSC innovation will permit the extension of laboratory isolation protocols to many applications. This NASA Technology is available for your company to license and develop into a commercial product. NASA does not manufacture products for commercial sale.
Detecting high stress in a job interview
Detecting High Stress in Interviews and Text
This system estimates whether a subject of interrogation is likely to be experiencing high stress, emotional volatility, and/or internal conflict in the subjects responses to an interviewers questions. The system applies one or more of four procedures, a first statistical analysis, a second statistical analysis, a third analysis and a heat map analysis, to identify one or more documents containing the subjects responses. Several statistical analyses are applied here, individually or in combination, based on selected emotional dimensions that are represented by related groups of words and phrases (anger, sadness, depression, etc.) Statistical indices are developed and applied for each emotional dimension to identify particular responses within one or more documents that should be revisited, optionally to identify topics that should be explored in an additional interview where the subject may have been practicing deception. Words in the documents are characterized in terms of dimensions representing different classes of emotions and states of mind, in which the subjects responses that manifest high stress, emotional volatility and/or internal conflict are identified. A heat map visually displays the dimensions manifested by the subjects responses in different colors, textures,geometric shapes or other visually distinguishable indicia.
Multiwalled CNT
Biochemical Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays
Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are fabricated by wafer-scale plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on prefabricated microelectrode pads and encapsulated in SiO2 or polymer dielectrics with only the very end exposed at the surface to form an inlaid nanodisk electrode array. As the size of an electrode is reduced, one can obtain: (1) higher sensitivity, i.e., the signal-to-noise ratio, which is inversely proportional to the radius (r) of the electrode, (2) lower detection limit, (3) higher temporal resolution (proportional to 1/r), and (4) miniaturization. Therefore, nanoelectrodes have great properties for electroanalysis. Carbon nanofibers can be fabricated at wafer scale, as high-aspect-ratio metallic wires, down to a few nanometers in diameter on metal microcontact pads to form well-defined nanoelectrode arrays. In addition, CNFs have a wide potential window, well-defined surface functional groups, and good biocompatibility,which are all highly demanded properties for biosensors. CNF arrays have been successfully fabricated on micropatterns. The electrical and electrochemical properties of the embedded CNF nanoelectrode arrays have been thoroughly characterized to show well-defined nanoelectrode behavior. In some schemes, selective covalent functionalization of probe oligonucleotides, antibodies or aptamers have been achieved through the formation of amide bonds at the exposed end of CNFs. Direct electrochemical detection of a target molecules oxidation signal, which is the signal from an electrochemical label, or change in charge transfer resistance, has been demonstrated for DNA, rRNA, proteins, catecholamines, and ions.
Female Researcher using Microscope
Miniature Bioreactor System for Cell Culture
The miniature bioreactor system was developed to provide the capabilities for NASA to perform cell studies in space and then provide results back to investigators on Earth with minimal tools and cost. The miniature bioreactor system has the potential to also be used on Earth as a laboratory bench-top cell culturing system without the need for expensive equipment and reagents. The system can be operated under computer control to reduce the operator handling and to reduce result variations. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere and temperature, and control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage dependent and suspension cells (prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell types). Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. The miniature bioreactor system for cell culturing has applications in pharmaceutical drug screening and cell culture studies.
Medical care world wide
Digital to Analog Transformation and Reconstruction of ECG Data
NASA innovators developed a method and apparatus for digital to analog conversion and reconstruction of multichannel electrocardiograms. The technology uses an algebraically optimized hardware configuration and software format that re-creates the presence of a connected patient when the patient is no longer actually present. This simplified method makes it easier and possible to transmit stored digital ECG data collected on one machine into another for an automated second opinion. Along with this functionality, the technology would make it possible to share the data collected for difficult-to-interpret 12-lead ECGs and rhythms with others in different locations. The device allows for very inexpensive ECG hardware front ends to be utilized for data collection since the digital data obtained will always be accurately convertible back to analog for fuller analysis at any central ECG receiving station. This capability would be useful for several situations, such as patients being monitored for heart conditions at home, student athletes participating in ECG screening programs, and individuals being screened in underdeveloped countries or remote areas. The NASA developed technology would be useful in collecting ECG data in environments such as military mobile units, oil platforms, mountaineering, and expeditions. This NASA Technology is available for your company to license and develop into a commercial product. NASA does not manufacture products for commercial sale.
Biohazard Warning
Solid And Liquid Waste Drying Bag
This invention addresses the problem of human solid waste disposal in microgravity, and consists of a soft-sided container or bag that (1) collects wet material using airflow, (2) compacts material under vacuum, and (3) dries material under applied vacuum. End products are clean water and dried, compacted, and bagged material. The bag includes a liquid-impermeable and vapor-impermeable outer layer and a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable inner layer membrane, defining an inner bag, through which some vapor can pass. The port is located in the outer layer, and activation of the vacuum source causes some of the original vapors and vaporized liquids to pass through the membrane liner. Liquid components of the moist waste solids within the bag may also be vaporized and transported across the membrane. Waste solids, such as excrement, remain in an inner layer defined by the membrane, and are partly dried by withdrawal of vaporized liquid and vaporized liquid components in the moist solids. These waste solids are thereby trapped and sealable in the bag, while the original vapors and the vaporized portion of the liquids pass through the membrane and are received by an outer bag defined by the membrane and the outer layer of the bag. After use, the bag is sealed and stored for ultimate disposal.
Electrical activity of the human heart
Cardiac muscle is myogenic and is capable of generating an action potential and depolarizing and repolarizing signals from within the muscle itself. An intrinsic conduction system (ICS), a group of specialized cardiac cells, passes an electrical signal throughout the heart. This technology is a method and associated system to identify a person based on the use of statistical parameters, peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia to authenticate or to decline to authenticate an asserted identity of a candidate person. There are three on-line modes of operation enrollment, verification, and identification as well as two off-line modes statistics and settings. In enrollment the raw electrocardiography (ECG) signal is processed and the results in the form of parameters are serialized and saved. Verification and Identification procedures use the feature parameters for recognition (classification) of subjects based on the same kind of parameters (features) of heartbeats extracted from the ECG signal of a person to be verified or identified.
Retinal Light Processing Using Carbon Nanotubes
The Vision Chip provides an alternative, pixel-sized, wavelength-sensitive light path around diseased, injured, or deficient areas to functioning retina. The implantable Vision Chip is based on CNTs or CNT bundles, used as photodetectors, electrodes, transducers, or physical guides to transmit opto-electrical signals in response to light. Each array of CNT towers connects to a pixel at one end, and penetrates the active retina at the other end. The chip's array of electrically conducting or semi-conducting CNT towers project orthogonally from the surface of a silicon chip or similar solid support. The separate electrical connections allow for towers to be electrically stimulated independently for high resolution and flexibility. An insulating layer covers the electrical circuitry, thereby electrically isolating the eye tissue. A key design feature is sufficient mechanical stability of the towers to permit insertion into retinal tissue, either from the anterior or the posterior aspect of the retina, without breaking or dislodging the CNT towers. A ground electrode, or counter-electrode, is incorporated onto the Vision Chip, to optimize electrical stimulation and electrical sensing from eye tissue. Benefits can include partial or full restoration of vision for those with certain retina disorders, injuries, and diseases like AMD or RP. In addition, light sensitivities of the system can be 'tuned' to respond to certain frequencies or amplified nonlinearly, so certain forms of color blindness and night blindness may benefit from this technology. The Vision Chip can also be used as an electrical sensor for the retina in fundamental vision science research to understand the eye's processing and integration of light signals. Ref 1: Bressler et al. Potential public health impact of Age-Related Eye Disease Study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol. Nov 2003;121(11):1621-4. [Medline]
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