power generation and storage
Cryogenic Flux Capacitor
Storage and transfer of fluid commodities such as oxygen, hydrogen, natural gas, nitrogen, argon, etc. is an absolute necessity in virtually every industry on Earth. These fluids are typically contained in one of two ways; as low pressure, cryogenic liquids, or as a high pressure gases. Energy storage is not useful unless the energy can be practically obtained ("un-stored") as needed. Here the goal is to store as many fluid molecules as possible in the smallest, lightest weight volume possible; and to supply ("un-store") those molecules on demand as needed in the end-use application. The CFC concept addresses this dual storage/usage problem with an elegant charging/discharging design approach. The CFC's packaging is ingeniously designed, tightly packing aerogel composite materials within a container allows for a greater amount of storage media to be packed densely and strategically. An integrated conductive membrane also acts as a highly effective heat exchanger that easily distributes heat through the entire container to discharge the CFC quickly, it can also be interfaced to a cooling source for convenient system charging; this feature also allows the fluid to easily saturate the container for fast charging. Additionally, the unit can be charged either with cryogenic liquid or from an ambient temperature gas supply, depending on the desired manner of refrigeration. Finally, the heater integration system offers two promising methods, both of which have been fabricated and tested, to evenly distribute heat throughout the entire core, both axially and radially.
mechanical and fluid systems
3D-Printed Injector for Cryogenic Fluid Management
NASA's TVS Augmented Injector includes an internal heat exchanger, a fluid injector spray head, and an external surface condensation heat exchanger - all combined with multiple intertwined flow paths containing liquid, two-phase, and gaseous working fluid. The TVS provides a source of coolant to the injector, which chills the incoming fluid flow. This cooled flow promotes condensation of the tank ullage dropping pressure and maintains incoming fluid flow. The system eliminates the potential for a stalled fill condition and reduces tank pressure during cryogenic fluid transfer. During fill operations, the tank vent can be closed early in the process before fluid is introduced, and, in some cases, the tank vent may not even need to be opened. Furthermore, the TVS Augmented Injector can remove sufficient thermal energy to reach a 100% liquid level in the receiver tank. A cryo-cooler can be used in place the TVS flow circuit for a zero-loss system. The TVS Augmented Injector couples internal fluid flow cooling and external surface ullage gas condensation into a single, compact package that can be mounted to small tank flanges for minimal impact insertion into any vessel. The injector is printed as one part using additive manufacturing, resulting in part count reduction, improved reproducibility, shorter lead times, and reduced cost compared to conventional approaches. The injector may be of particular interest in applications where cryogenic fluid is expensive, fluid loss through vents is problematic, and/or achieving high filling levels would be helpful. The injector can benefit typical cryogenic fluid transfer between containers or, alternatively, can serve as a tank pressure control device for long-term storage using a fluid recirculation system that pumps fluid through the injector and sprays cooled liquid back into the tank. Additionally, where ISRU processes are employed, the injector can be used to liquefy incoming propellant streams.