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Optical De-Multiplexing Method for QKD Encryption
Classical laser communication gimbals are coupled to 105um multimodal receiving fibers for the high-power transmission of data, fine pointing, and tracking. These fibers cannot be used in free space optical communication applications using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) since polarization state information encoded by QKD photons is not retained. To accommodate low energy QKD photons and high energy data streams necessary for encryption of optical links, the inventor adopted a space-and-wave (SAW) division de-multiplexing approach. The SAW division method uses a double clad fiber with a 9um core and a 105um 1st cladding. This arrangement captures 1590nm wavelength QKD photons in the core channel and a 1555.75nm wavelength data channel in the 1st cladding. By defining wavelength separation between 30-40nm, a single focusing lens can be used to focus only one wavelength to a diffraction limited spot (see figures included). Using this method, a QKD channel is focused to a diffraction limited spot on the 9um core of the double clad fiber. The chosen wavelength separation generates a defocused diffraction pattern with a hollow center, and with remaining optical power in concentric rings outside of the 9um core, yet inside the 105um core. The QKD signal is directed into the 9um core, and the data channel is coupled into the 105um secondary core for traditional data demodulation.
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