Power Generation and Storage
Image from NASA photo library
Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery Tech Portfolio
The SABERS innovators developed novel lithium-sulfur designs, including sulfur-selenium on graphene cathodes, and lightweight bipolar plate stacking and packaging designs. SABERS is unique in several aspects: it deploys graphene-based manufacturing processes for the cathode and bipolar plates, and it uses a solid-state electrolyte in place of the liquid electrolyte found in other lithium-sulfur battery designs. The team has achieved energy densities over 500 W-hr/kg, and further improvements are expected. SABERS can meet the high-power requirements needed for aircraft take-off. SABERS is lightweight, safe, robust, and reliable. Furthermore, its manufacturing processes are scalable and environmentally friendly. Coin cell and pouch prototypes have been demonstrated to date. Development efforts continue and new portfolio innovations are expected. Major component technologies in SABERS include the following (as listed here and shown in the figure below). <ul> <li>S/Se Cathode – Sulfur/Selenium on graphene scaffold (LAR-19556-1, LEW-20228-1) <li>Solid Electrolyte – Solid-state electrolyte composites (LEW-20445-1) <li>Bipolar Stack – Graphene plates (LAR-20257-1) <li>Li-Metal Anode (Proprietary, under development) <li>Packaging (Proprietary, under development)</ul> Robust computational models have been developed to support the battery materials design and are available to licensees to evaluate and optimize different materials combinations and performance targets.
Power Generation and Storage
NEW CFC Front Image
Cryogenic Flux Capacitor
Storage and transfer of fluid commodities such as oxygen, hydrogen, natural gas, nitrogen, argon, etc. is an absolute necessity in virtually every industry on Earth. These fluids are typically contained in one of two ways; as low pressure, cryogenic liquids, or as a high pressure gases. Energy storage is not useful unless the energy can be practically obtained ("un-stored") as needed. Here the goal is to store as many fluid molecules as possible in the smallest, lightest weight volume possible; and to supply ("un-store") those molecules on demand as needed in the end-use application. The CFC concept addresses this dual storage/usage problem with an elegant charging/discharging design approach. The CFC's packaging is ingeniously designed, tightly packing aerogel composite materials within a container allows for a greater amount of storage media to be packed densely and strategically. An integrated conductive membrane also acts as a highly effective heat exchanger that easily distributes heat through the entire container to discharge the CFC quickly, it can also be interfaced to a cooling source for convenient system charging; this feature also allows the fluid to easily saturate the container for fast charging. Additionally, the unit can be charged either with cryogenic liquid or from an ambient temperature gas supply, depending on the desired manner of refrigeration. Finally, the heater integration system offers two promising methods, both of which have been fabricated and tested, to evenly distribute heat throughout the entire core, both axially and radially.
Electrical and Electronics
Highly secure all-printed Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) electronic device based on a nanomaterial network
The technology is an all-printed Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) electronic device based on a nanomaterial (such as single-walled carbon nanotube) network. The network may be a mixture of semiconducting and metallic nanotubes randomly tangled with each other through the printing process. The all-printed PUF electronic device comprises a nanomaterial ink that is inkjet deposited, dried, and randomly tangled on a substrate, creating a network. A plurality of electrode pairs is attached to the substrate around the substrate perimeter. Each nanotube in the network can be a conduction path between electrode pairs, with the resistance values varying among individual pairs and between networks due to inherent inter-device and intra-device variability. The unique resistance distribution pattern for each network may be visualized using a contour map based on the electrode information, providing a PUF key that is a 2D pattern of analog values. The PUF security keys remain stable and maintain robustness against security attacks. Although local resistance change may occur inside the network (e.g., due to environmental impact), such change has little effect on the overall pattern. In addition, when a network-wide resistance change occurs, all resistances are affected together, so that the unique pattern is maintained.
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