military

aerospace
Aeroplane
System and Method for Providing a Real Time Audible Message to a Pilot
The invention provides receipt of text messages that are communicated by, or received by, aircraft that are within a selected distance from the inquiring pilots aircraft. This information is filtered by a Pilots Aircraft receiver using a list of Target Words and Phrases (TWP) for which the subject is of concern to the pilot. Messages containing one or more of the selected TWPs are presented in a selected order as text or, alternatively as a verbal message for review by the pilot. Upon receipt of the TWPs, the pilot determines if any action should be taken in order to avoid or minimize delay associated with the information. Communication between the inquiring pilot and any other pilot within the prescribed range, geographic sector, and/or time interval is implemented using a publish and subscribe approach to exchange relevant data. A pilot determines which information to share and with whom and from whom the pilot is interested in receiving information (subscribe). This approach will avoid the radio chatter that often accompanies a party line system. Each such message may be assigned a priority with messages having higher priority being given preference in a message queue. The messages can be filtered and received as coded or encrypted, depending upon a situation or security concerns.
information technology and software
Hubble Spies Charming Spiral Galaxy Bursting with Stars
Radiation Hardened 10BASE-T Ethernet Physical Interface
Currently there is no radiation hardened Ethernet interface device/circuit available commercially. In this Ethernet solution, the portion of the PHY in the FPGA is responsible for meeting the IEEE 802.3 protocol, decoding received packets and link pulses, and encoding transmitted data packets. The decoded payload data is sent to a user interface internal to the FPGA which sends data for transmission back to the FPGA PHY. The transmit portion is composed of two AD844 op amps from Analog Devices with appropriate filtering. The receive portion is composed of a transformer, an Aeroflex Low-Voltage Differential Multi-drop device, and appropriate filtering.
information technology and software
Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features
Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features and Multi-Sensor Image Registration
NASAs Goddard Space Flight Centers method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is a method developed to extract Lunar features based on the combination of several image processing techniques. The technology was developed to register images from multiple sensors and extract features from images in low-contrast and uneven illumination conditions. The image processing and registration techniques can include, but is not limited to, a watershed segmentation, marked point processes, graph cut algorithms, wavelet transforms, multiple birth and death algorithms and/or the generalized Hough Transform.
information technology and software
Tycho Crater's Peak; Credit: NASA Goddard/Arizona State University
Space Link Extension Return Channel Frames (SLE-RCF) Software Library
The Space Link Extension Return Channel Frames (SLE-RCF) software library helps to monitor the health and safety of spacecraft by enabling space agency ground support and mission control centers to develop standardized and interoperable mission control applications for space telemetry data. The software library eliminates the need for missions to implement custom data communication designs to communicate with any ground station. The two main tasks accomplished via the SLE-RCF software library are processing user requests and receiving data from ground stations and ground support assets. The software library contains three layers: -SLE (Space Link Extension) for the abstract workings of the protocol -DEL (Decoding and Encoding Layer) to decode and encode the abstract messages used by the SLE layer -TML (Transport Mapping Layer) to transfer the encoded messages via some underlying transport layer protocol, such as as the transmission control protocol (TCP) The library accepts configuration or SLE-RCF directives from the user and responds accordingly. Incoming data, both telemetry frames and status messages, are processed and the appropriate callback routines are triggered by the library.
communications
Radar Jets
Solid-State Microwave Power Module
Typically, microwave power modules (MPMs) are useful only for radar and navigation purposes because they lack the linearity and efficiency required for communications. In standard configurations, conventional MPMs require both a solid-state amplifier at the front end and a microwave vacuum electronics amplifier at the back end. By contrast, Glenn's design features a wideband multi-stage distributed amplifier system. The low-power stage is a high-efficiency gallium arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT)-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) distributed amplifier. The medium-power stage is configured to pick up and amplify the low-power signal. This stage can be either another high-efficiency GaAs pHEMT or a gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT-based MMIC distributed amplifier, depending on the need. The high-power stage, configured to pick up the signal from the second amplifier, is a high-efficiency GaN HEMT-based MMIC distributed amplifier, which supplants the traveling-wave tube amplifier found in most microwave power modules. In Glenn's novel MPM, the radar functions as a scatterometer, radiometer, and synthetic aperture imager. The high-speed communications system down-links science data acquired by Earth-observing instruments. The navigation system functions like a transponder for autonomous rendezvous and docking, and estimates the range information. Glenn's MPM gives systems the versatility to use a single power module to drive not only radar and navigation but also communications systems.
optics
Example of JPLs imaging system display. A full 360-degree, low-resolution, real-time view of the scene. Windows containing higher-resolution views of user-selected regions of the scene.
High-Resolution, Continuous Field-of-View, Nonrotating Imaging System
JPL's high-resolution complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging system comprises two major elements: a sensor head for scene acquisition and a control apparatus with distributed processors and software for device control, data handling, and display. The sensor head is configured as a cylinder suitable for use on the existing mast of conventional periscopes and has seven decks. Each deck encloses a combination of wide-FOV CMOS imagers (i.e., full-field imagers [FFIs]) and narrow-FOV CMOS imagers (i.e., tracking zoom imagers [TZIs]). The control apparatus includes four TZI processors, one FFI processor, one host processor, and an optional automatic target recognition (ATR) processor for high-speed, high-precision target detection, identification, and tracking. A high-resolution, continuous FOV, nonrotating imaging system has been demonstrated using readily available CMOS imagers. The image processing and system-level control electronics are instantiated in six conventional PC104 stacks (one for each processor) and contained in a 10x50x20-cm housing, which has a footprint approximately the size of a standard laptop computer. The display system is computer workstation hosting an interactive graphical user interface that allows the user to exercise all of the operational states of the system (e.g., search, tracking, display, high-resolution windowing, etc.).
sensors
explosion
Infrared Real-Time Pyrometer
This technology was developed by NASA engineers to test pyrotechnic initiated systems for stray current before the explosive material is loaded in the devices. This system provides a portable and reliable safety check for equipment to pinpoint insufficient EMI shielding. Instead of a binary pass/fail test, it will enable engineers to determine precisely how close they are to the no-fire threshold. The pyrometer calculates the amount of stray energy by measuring small amounts of thermal radiation emitted by the bridgewire during test. The data collected by the pyrometer data acquisition system can be used to determine the resultant stray current value. Existing technologies can only determine the minimum threshold of current required to ignite an explosive but not the actual measured current present in the system. By contrast, this technology provides users a measurement of how much stray energy is present and if the stray current exceeds or meets the acceptable threshold. Commercial companies can use this technology to measure the amount stray current present to quantify the risk before loading explosives initiators to be used in space and commercial systems.
information technology and software
Hierarchical Image Segmentation (HSEG)
Hierarchical Image Segmentation (HSEG)
Currently, HSEG software is being used by Bartron Medical Imaging as a diagnostic tool to enhance medical imagery. Bartron Medical Imaging licensed the HSEG Technology from NASA Goddard adding color enhancement and developing MED-SEG, an FDA approved tool to help specialists interpret medical images. HSEG is available for licensing outside of the medical field (specifically for soft-tissue analysis).
aerospace
Transport Aircraft
Aeroelastic Wing Shaping
Distributed propulsion and lightweight flexible structures on air vehicles pose a significant opportunity to improve mission performance while meeting next generation requirements including reduced fuel burn, lower emissions, and enhanced takeoff and landing performance. Flexible wing-shaping aircraft using distributed propulsion enable the ability to achieve improved aerodynamic efficiency while maintaining aeroelastic stability. Wing shaping concepts using distributed propulsion leverage the ability to introduce forces/ moments into the wing structure to affect the wing aerodynamics. This can be performed throughout the flight envelope to alter wing twist, hence local angle of attack, as the wing loading changes with air vehicle weight during cruise. Thrust-induced lift can be achieved by distributed propulsion for enhanced lift during take-off and landing. For a highly flexible wing structure, this concept could achieve a 4% improvement in lift-to-drag ratio, hence reduced fuel burn, as compared to a conventional stiff wing. This benefit is attributed to a reduction in lift-induced drag throughout the flight envelope by actively shaping the spanwise lift distribution using distributed propulsion. Vertical tail size could be reduced by utilizing differential thrust flight-propulsion control. This will result in weight reduction to achieve further fuel savings. Aeroelastic stability is addressed in the design process to meet flutter clearance requirements by proper placement of the propulsion units. This technology enables synergistic interactions between lightweight materials, propulsion, flight control, and active aeroelastic wing shaping control for reducing the environmental impact of future air vehicles.
aerospace
Simple COBRA geometry shape
Co-Optimization of Blunt Body Shapes for Moving Vehicles
Vehicles designed for purposes of exploration of the planets and other atmospheric bodies in the Solar System favor the use of mid-Lift/Drag blunt body geometries. Such shapes can be designed so as to yield favorable hypersonic aerothermodynamic properties for low heating and hypersonic aerodynamic properties for maneuverability and stability. The entry trajectory selected influences entry peak heating and integrated heating loads which in turn influences the design of the thermal protection system. A nominal is used to compare each shape considered. The vehicle will be subject to both launch and entry loading along with structural integrity constraints that may further influence shape design. Further, such vehicles must be sized so as to fit on existing or realizable launch vehicles, often within existing launch payload shroud constraints.
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